Accidentality and Knowledge After Gettier

Leandro De Brasi


Fifty years on since the publication of Gettier’s famous article and there is still no widespread agreement among philosophers on some set of conditions that block Gettier cases and the like. In fact, there is much pessimism about some such project. The aim of this paper is to show that this pessimism is misplaced. I argue that an account that posits a refective endorsement of the knowledge-yielding procedures that can be met at the social level can capture, what I here call, the non-accidentality desideratum. The lesson we can draw is that the project of adding some accidentality-blocker to true belief to have knowledge is not doomed if we give up the individualistic approach of much mainstream epistemology.

Full Text:



Ayer, Alfred. “Comments on Professor Williams’ “Knowledge and Reasons”.” Problems in the Theory of Knowledge. Ed. Georg Henrik von Wright. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1972. 20-35. Print.

BonJour, Laurance. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge. MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. Print.

Chisholm, Roderick. Theory of Knowledge. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1977. Print.

Comesaña, Juan. “Unsafe Knowledge.” Synthese 146 (2005): 395-404. Print.

Dancy, Jonathan. Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985. Print.

De Brasi, Leandro. “Reliability and Social Knowledge-Relevant Responsibility.” 2013. TS.

De Brasi, Leandro. “Testimony and Value in the Theory of Knowledge.” 2013. TS.

Fogelin, Robert. Pyrrhonian Refections on Knowledge and Justifcation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.

Gettier, Edmund. “Is Justifed True Belief Knowledge?” Analysis 23 (1963):121-3. Print.

Goldman, Alvin. “Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976): 771-91. Print.

Goldman, Alvin. Epistemology and Cognition. MA: Harvard University Press, 1986. Print.

Greco, John. Putting the Skeptics in Their Place. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.

Greco, John. “Worries about Pritchard’s Safety.” Synthese 158 (2007): 299-302. Print.

Greco, John. Achieving Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Grimm, Stephen. “Understanding.” The Routledge Companion to Epistemology. Eds. Sven Bernecker, Duncan Pritchard. London: Routledge, 2011. 84-94. Print.

Harman, Gilbert. Thought. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973. Print.

Hiller, Avram and Neta, Ram. “Safety and Epistemic Luck” Synthese 158 (2007): 303-13. Print.

Howard-Snyder, Daniel, Howard-Snyder, Frances, and Feit, Neil. “Infallibilism and Gettier’s Legacy.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (2003): 304-27. Print.

Hyman, John. “How Knowledge Works.” Philosophical Quarterly 49 (1999): 433-51. Print.

Kvanvig, Jonathan. The Intellectual Virtues and the Life of the Mind. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefeld, 1992. Print.

Kvanvig, Jonathan. The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Lehrer, Keith. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990. Print.

Lewis, David. “Elusive Knowledge.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (1996): 549-67. Print.

Lycan, William. “Evidence One Does Not Possess.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 55 (1977): 114-26. Print.

McGinn, Colin. Knowledge and Reality. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999. Print.

Meeker, Kevin. “Justifcation and the Social Nature of Knowledge.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2004): 156-72. Print.

Millar, Alan. “Knowledge and Recognition.” The Nature and Value of Knowledge. Duncan Pritchard, Alan Millar, Adrian Haddock. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. 91-190. Print.

Nozick, Robert. Philosophical Explanations. MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.

Pritchard, Duncan. Epistemic Luck. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

Pritchard, Duncan. “Knowledge, Luck and Lotteries.” New Waves in Epistemology. Eds. Vincent Hendricks, Duncan Pritchard. Hampshire: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2008. 28-51. Print.

Pritchard, Duncan. Knowledge. Hampshire: Palgrave, 2009a. Print.

Pritchard, Duncan. “Apt Performance and Epistemic Value.” Philosophical Studies 143 (2009b): 407-16. Print.

Pritchard, Duncan. “Knowledge and Understanding.” The Nature and Value of Knowledge. Duncan Pritchard, Alan Millar, Adrian Haddock. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. 3-90. Print.

Roush, Sherrilyn. Tracking Truth. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. Print.

Russell, Bruce. “Epistemic and Moral Duty.” Knowledge, Truth and Duty. Ed. Matthias Steup. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 34-48. Print.

Sosa, Ernest. “How to Defeat Opposition to Moore.” Philosophical Perspectives 13 (1999): 141-53. Print.

Sosa, Ernest. “Skepticism and Contextualism.” Philosophical Issues 10 (2000): 1-18. Print.

Sosa, Ernest. A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Refective Knowledge. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon, 2007. Print.

Sturgeon, Scott. “The Gettier Problem.” Analysis 53 (1993): 156-64. Print.

Unger, Peter. “An Analysis of Factual Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 65 (1968): 157-70. Print.

Williams, Bernard. “Knowledge and Reasons. ” Problems in the Theory of Knowledge. Ed. Georg Henrik von Wright. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1972. 2-19. Print.

Williams, Michael. “Responsibility and Reliability.” Philosophical Papers 37 (2008): 1-26. Print.

Williamson, Timothy. Knowledge and its Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Zagzebski, Linda. “The Inescapability of Gettier Problems.” Philosophical Quarterly 44 (1994): 65-73. Print.

Zagzebski, Linda. Virtues of the Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

Zagzebski, Linda. “What is Knowledge?” The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Ed. John Greco. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. 92-116. Print.

Zagzebski, Linda. On Epistemology. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2009. Print.


  • There are currently no refbacks.