Daniela Dimitrova Radojichikj


Goal: To determine prevalence and causes of blindness among adults (> 26 years age) in five municipalities in the Republic of Macedonia.

Methods: The ophthalmology statements of registered people with blindness who are beneficiaries of social welfare in 2015 were reviewed.

Results: A total of 475 records were included in the research. The mean age of the persons was 64.1 (range 26-87), both male and female. Blindness was found to be significantly associated with increasing age (p<0.001). There was gender difference in the prevalence of blindness (p=0.0310).The rate of blindness was estimated to be 0.24% (95% CI:0.22-0.26). The most common causes were cataract (23.2%), then glaucoma (21.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (12.8%). Many of the causes of blindness were potentially avoidable, with cataract and glaucoma as leading etiology.

Conclusion: The results of this study point to the initiation of coordinated activities to prevent blindness caused from cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy.


prevalence, age, gender, causes of blindness

Full Text:



Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia [Online]. No.30/2000 [Cited 2016 Aug.]. Available from: URL:

World Health Organization. Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness: action plan 2006-2011. [Online]. 2007 [Cited 2016 Aug.]. Available from: URL: blindness/Vision2020_report.pdf

Thylefors B, Negrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY. Global data on blindness. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1995; 73: 115–121.

State Statistical Office. Institutions and rights of social welfare for juvenile and adult recipients [Online]. 2015 [Cited 2016 Aug.]. Available from: URL: 2016/2.1.16. 25.pdf

Krumpaszky HG, Ludtke R, Mickler A, Klauss V, Selbmann HK. Blindness incidence in Germany. A population-based study from Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern. Ophthalmologica 1999; 213: 176–182.

Bourne RR, Stevens GA, White RA and et al. Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2013; 1(6): e339–349.

Mavliand SA, Sisodiya SR. Current Scenario of Blindness Prevalence in Indian Population. International Journal of Current Medical Research 2015; 4(2): 394–397.

Robaei D, Watson LS. Corneal blindness: A global problem. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2014; 42(3): 213–214.

Finger RP, Fimmers R, Holz FG, Scholl HP. Prevalence and causes of registered blindness in the largest federal state of Germany. Br J Ophthalmol 2011; 95: 1061–1067.

Ничевска Л, Аврамовски В. Прирачник за остварување на права од областа на социјалната и детската заштита [Online]. 2011 [Cited 2016 Aug.]. Available from: URL: socijalna_%20zastita.pdf

Newcombe RG. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: Comparison of seven methods. Statistics in Medicine 1998; 17: 857–872.

Ho VH, Schwab IR. Social Economic Development in the Prevention of Global Blindness. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2001; 85: 653–657.

Gunnlaugsdottir E, Arnarsson A, Jonasson F. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Icelanders aged 50 years and older: the Reykjavik Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008; 86: 778–785.

Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol 2012; 96(5): 614–618.

Tabbara KF. Blindness in the eastern Mediterranean countries. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001; 85: 771–775.

Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Mariotti SP, Pokharel GP. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ 2004; 82: 844–851.

Lee R, Wong YT, Sabanayagam C. Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss. Eye and Vision 2015; 2: 17.

Laitinen A, Laatikainen L, Harkanen T, et al. Prevalence of major eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in the adult Finnish population: a nationwide population-based survey. Acta Ophthalmol 2010; 88:463–471.

Klaver CC, Wolfs RC, Vingerling JR, et al. Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1998; 116:653–658.

Ghafour IM, Allan D, Foulds W. Common causes of blindness and visual handicap in the west of Scotland. Br J Ophthalmol 1983; 67:209–213.

Munier A, Gunning T, Kenny D, O’Keefe M. Causes of blindness in the adult population of the Republic of Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998; 82: 630–633.

Vassileva P, Gieser SC, Vitale S, et al. Blindness and visual impairment in Western Bulgaria. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 1996; 3: 143–149.

Nowak MS, Smigielski J. The Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness Among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Feb; 94(5): e505.

World Health Organization. Prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. [Online]. 2008 [Cited 2017 Jan.]. Available from: URL: Action Plan.pdf


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Article Metrics Graph

No metrics found.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

JSER ONLINE is licensed under a Creative Commons; 2.5 Macedonia License.