ABNORMALITIES OF THE GYRAL WINDOW IN AUTISM: A MACROSCOPIC CORRELATE TO A PUTATIVE MINICOLUMNOPATHY

Manuel F. CASANOVA, Aly FARAG, Ayman EL-BAZ, Meghan MOTT, Hossam HASSAN, Rachid FAHMI, Andrew E. SWITALA

Abstract


АБНОРМАЛНОСТ НА ГИРАЛНИОТ ПРОЗОРЕЦ КАЈ АУТИЗМОТ
МИКРОСКОПСКИ КОРЕЛАТ НА ПРЕТПОСТАВЕНА МИНИКОЛУМНОПАТИЈА

 

Мануел Ф. КАЗАНОВА1, Али ФАРАГ 2,
Ајман
ЕЛ-БАЗ 2, МеганМОТ 1, Хосам ХАСАН 2,Рахид ФАХМИ 2, Ендрју Е. СВИТАЛА 1



1 Оддел за психијатрија и бихевиорални науки
Универзитет Луисвил, Луисвил, Кентаки
2 Оддел за електро и компјутерско инженерство 
Универзитет Луисвил, Луисвил, Кентаки 40292

 

ABNORMALITIES OF THE GYRAL WINDOW IN AUTISM: 
A MACROSCOPIC CORRELATE TO A PUTATIVE MINICOLUMNOPATHY

 

Manuel F. CASANOVA1 Aly FARAG2,
Ayman EL-BAZ2 Meghan MOTT1HossamHASSAN2,Rachid FAHMI2Andrew E. SWITALA1

 

1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292

 

 

 

Резиме

 

Abstract

Аутизмот е невроразвојно нарушување кое го карактеризираат нарушувања во социјалната интеракција, јазикот и опсегот на интереси. Понови студии сугерираат дека мозоците на аутистичките пациенти имаат зголемен број на миниколони. Ова откритие помага да се објасни присуството на макроенцефалија или зголемување на мозокот кај значителен број пациенти со аутизам. Промените на големината на мозокот и гирификацијата обично се истовремени. Во оваа студија имплементиравме алгоритам што го мери гирификацискиот прозорец во мозоците на 23 постмортем аутистички и 16 постмортем контролни мозоци. На  ниво на доверба од 85% алгоритмот точно класифицира 22/23 аутистички, стапка на точност 0,96, и 15/16 контролни, стапка на точност 0,94. Претходните структурални студии на невровизуелизација кај аутизмот ги нагласуваа волуметриските мерки. Овие методологии се многу чувствителни на сегментирање на артефакти, нарушени од буката на претставата, недостатокот на силни рабови и поделбата на боја/ткиво меѓу различни структури. Сегашната студија нуди нов приод кон класификацијата на аутизам базирана врз структурната МНР. 
Откритието му носи важност на клиничкото претставување на аутизмот бидејќи зголемената гирификација го намалува гиралниот прозорец и ја ограничува поврзаноста во корист на кусите кортикортикални влакна.

 

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, language, and range of interests. Recent studies suggest that the brains of autistic patients have an increased number of minicolumns. This finding helps explain the presence of macroencephaly or increased brain size in a significant proportion of autistic patients. Changes in brain size and gyrification are usually concurrent. In this study we have implemented an algorithm that measured the gyrification window in the brains of 23 postmortem autistic and 16 postmortem control brains. At the 85% confidence level the algorithm correctly classified 22/23 autistics, a 0.96 accuracy rate, and 15/16 controls, a 0.94 accuracy rate. Previous structural neuroimaging studies in autism have emphasized volumetric measures. These methodologies are very sensitive to segmentation artifacts, being compromised by image noise, lack of strong edges, and sharing of color/texture among different structures. The present study offers a new approach to the classification of autism based on structural MRI. 
The finding bears relevance to the clinical presentation of autism as increased gyrification reduces the gyral window and constrains connectivity in favor of short corticocortical fibers.

   

Клучни зборови: аутизам, магнетна нуклеарна резонанца (МНР), неокортекс, миниколумни

 

Key words: Autism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neocortex, minicolumns


Adresa za separatite:

 

Address requests for reprint to:

Manuel F. Casanova

 

Manuel F. Casanova

University of Louisville
Department of Psychiatry
500 South Preston St Bldg 55A Ste 217
Louisville, KY 40292, USA 
m0casa02@gwise.louisville.edu

 

University of Louisville
Department of Psychiatry
500 South Preston St Bldg 55A Ste 217
Louisville, KY 40292, USA 
m0casa02@gwise.louisville.edu


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