Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (re)habilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

Full Text:



Decker SL, England JA, Carboni, JA, Brooks JH. Cognitive and developmental influences in Visual-Motor Integration skills in young children. Psychological Assessment 2011; 23(4):1010–1016.

Bart O, Hajami D, Bar‐Haim Y. Predicting school adjustment from motor abilities in kindergarten. Infant and Child Development 2007; 16(6):597–615.

Schultz RT, Carter AS, Gladstone M, Scahill L, Leckman JF, Peterson BP, Zhang H, Cohen DJ, Pauls D. Visual-Motor integration functioning in children with Tourette syndrome. Neuropsychology 1998; 12(1):134–145.

Bohm B, Lundequist A, Smedler AC. Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: The Bender visual motor gestalt test revisited. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2010; 51(5):376–384.

Sutton GP, Barchard KA, Bello DT, Thaler NS, Ringdahl E, Allen DM, Mayfield J. Beery-Buktenica developmental test of Visual-motor integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological assessment 2011; 23(3):805–809.

Case-Smith J. Fine motor outcomes in preschool children who receive occupational therapy services. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1996; 50(1):52–61. 7. Ljutić T, Joković Oreb I, Nikolić B. The effect of early intervention program on motor development in a child with neurodevelopmental risk. Hrvatska revija za rehabilitacijska istraživanja 2012; 48(2):55–65.

Dankert HL, Davies PL, Gavin WJ. Occupational therapy effects on visual-motor skills in preschool children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 2003; 57(5):542–549.

Memisevic H, Hadzic S. The relationship between visual-motor integration and articulation disorders in preschool children. Journal of Occupational Therapy, School & Early Intervention 2013; (in press).

Beery KE, Beery NA. Beery VMI- Administration, Scoring and Teaching Manual. Bloomington: Pearson, 2010.

Decker SL. Measuring growth and decline in visual-motor processes with the Bender-Gestalt second edition. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 2008; 26(1):3–15.

Memisevic H, Sinanovic O. Predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2012; 35(4):372–374.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Article Metrics Graph

No metrics found.


  • There are currently no refbacks.