THE EFFECT OF USING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS VERSUS PICTURES ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY LEARNING OF INDIVIDUALS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

Zahra Sadat NOORI, Mohammad Taghi FARVARDIN

Abstract


This study aimed to examine the effect of using audio-visual aids and pictures on foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability.

Method: To this end, a comparison group quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test and a post-test. The participants were 16 individuals with mild intellectual disability living in a center for mentally disabled individuals in Dezfoul, Iran. They were all male individuals with the age range of 20 to 30. Their mother tongue was Persian, and they did not have any English background. In order to ensure that all participants were within the same IQ level, a standard IQ test, i.e. Colored Progressive Matrices test, was run. Afterwards, the participants were randomly assigned to two experimental groups; one group received the instruction through audio-visual aids, while the other group was taught through pictures. The treatment lasted for four weeks, 20 sessions on aggregate. A total number of 60 English words selected from the English package named 'The Smart Child' were taught. 

After the treatment, the participants took the posttest in which the researchers randomly selected 40 words from among the 60 target words.

Results: The results of Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that using audio-visual aids was more effective than pictures in foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the use of audio-visual aids can be more effective than pictures in foreign language vocabulary learning of individuals with mild intellectual disability.

 


Keywords


mild intellectual disability; second language vocabulary; audio-visual aids; pictures

Full Text:

PDF

References


Schalock RL, Borthwick-Duffy S, Bradley V, Buntix WHE, Coulter DL, Craig EPM, et al. Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and systems of support (11th ed.). Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2010.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: Author, 2000.

Hawkins BA, Eklund SJ, James DR, Foose AK. Adaptive behavior and cognitive function of adults with Down syndrome: Modeling change with age. Mental Retardation 2003; 41(1): 7–28.

Westwood P. Commonsense methods for children with special educational needs (7th ed.). New York: Routledge, 2015.

Project IDEAL. [cited 2015] available from http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/intellectual-disabilities.

Carrasquillo AL. Teaching English as a second language: A resource guide. London, UK: Routledge, 2013.

Sedlak RA, Sedlak DM. Teaching The Educable Mentally Retarded. New York: State University of New York Press, 1985.

Stojanovska–Džingovska D, Bilić, I. “What is the Correct Approach: Disability Etiquette or How to Interact with the Persons with Disabilities: Ethics in the Education of the Students with Disabilities.” In Guidelines for Correct Attitude towards Persons with Disabilities or Limited Abilities in Higher Education, edited by AM Lazarevska, V Trajkovski, R Petrov, 21–34. Skopje: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, 2012.

De Joode EA, van Heugten CM, Verhey FR, van Boxtel MPJ. Efficacy and usability of assistive technology for patients with cognitive deficits: A systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 701–714.

Bryant DP, Bryant BR, Raskind MH. Using assistive technology to enhance the skills of students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School & Clinic 1998; 34(1): 53-58.

Woll B, Grove N. On language deficits and modality in children with Down syndrome: A case study of twins bilingual in BSL and English. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 1996; 1: 271-278.

Vallar G, Papagna C. Preserved vocabulary acquisition in Down’s syndrome: The role of phonological short-term memory. Cortex 1993; 29: 467-483.

Feltmate K, Kay-Raining Bird E. Language learning in four bilingual children with Down syndrome: A detailed analysis of vocabulary and morphosyntax. Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology 2008; 32: 6-20.

Kay-Raining Bird E, Cleave PL, Trudeau N, Thordardottir E, Sutton A, Thorpe A. The language abilities of bilingual children with Down syndrome. American Journal of Speech-language Pathology 2005; 14: 187-199.

Buckley S. Can children with Down syndrome learn more than one language? Down Syndrome News and Update 2002; 2(3): 100-102.

Londono-Patino A, Aguilar-Gutierrez DC. Teaching and learning beyond academic-reality: an experience on teaching English to cognitively impaired learners (Unpublished undergraduate thesis). Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Spain, 2012.

Krapez, S. Second Language Comprehension and Acquisition in Mentally Disabled Children- Illusion or Reality. IBS Newsletter poročevalec, 2012.

Coşkun A. Teaching English to non-native learners of English with mild cognitive impairment. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods 2013; 3(4): 8-16.

Al Yaari S, Al Hammadi F, Alyami S. Teaching mentally handicapped children (MHC) using audio-visual aids: A pedagogic and psychoneurolinguistic approach. International Journal of English Language Education 2013; 1(2): 119-141.

Reynolds T, Zupanick CE, Dombeck M. Effective teaching methods for people with intellectual disabilities. [cited 2013] Available from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view doc.php?type=doc&id=10365&cn=208

Nithya V. Innovative ideas for best teaching and learning process. Research Directions 2014; 1(8): 1-4.

Eline L. How to prepare and use visual aids. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: American Society for Training and Development, 2007.

Hill DA. Visual Impact: Creative language learning through pictures. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited, 1990.

Kate A, Marquez A. Teaching vocabulary with visual aids. Journal of Kao Ying Industrial & Commercial Vocational High School 2011; 1(9): 1-5.

Thornburry S. How to teach vocabulary. London: Longman, 2002.

Paivio A. Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.

McBride DM, Dosher BA. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: A process dissociation analysis. Consciousness and Cognition 2002; 11: 423-460.

Van der Bijl C, Alant E, Lloyd L. A Comparison of two strategies of sight word instruction in children with mental disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2006; 27(1): 43-55.

Rondal JA. Bilingualism in mental retardation: Some perspective views. Child development and disabilities. Scientific Institute "Eugenio Medea" 2004; 27: 57-64.

Raven J, Raven JC, Court JH. Raven manual: Section 2. Colored progressive matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press, 1998.

Facon B, Nuchadee ML. An item analysis of Raven's colored progressive matrices among participants with Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2011; 32(2): 857-8.

Goharpey N, Crewther DP, Crewther SG. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2013; 34(12): 4366-4374.

Vakil E, Lifshitz-Zehavi H. Solving the Raven progressive matrices by adults with intellectual disability with/without Down syndrome: Different cognitive patterns as indicated by eye movements. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2011; 33: 645-654.

Ashkbous A. The Smart Child [English teaching program]. [cited 2013]. Available from http://www.bartarkala.com/product.php?id=942

Faragher R, Clarke B. Developing early number concepts for children with Down syndrome. In R. Faragher & B. Clarke (Eds.). Educating Learners with Down Syndrome: Research, theory, and practice with children and adolescents (pp.146-162). London & New York: Routledge, 2013.

Bray NW, Fletcher KL, Turner LA. Cognitive competencies and strategy use in individuals with mild retardation. In W. E. MacLean Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of mental deficiency, psychological theory and research (3rd ed.) (pp. 197-218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1997.

Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.

Iram S. Reading needs, facilities, and problems of visually impaired people. Pakistan Journal of Library and Information Science 2012; 13(1).

Al Yaari S. Using audio-visual aids and computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) to overcome learning difficulties of speaking in students of special needs. Journal for the Study of English Linguistics 2013; 1(2): 231-255.

Honey M, Moeller B. Teachers' beliefs and technology integration: Different values, different understanding. New York: Center for Technology in Education, 1990.

Allor JH, Mathes PG, Roberts JK, Jones FG, Champlin TM. Teaching students with moderate intellectual disabilities to read: An experimental examination of a comprehensive reading intervention. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities 2010; 45(1); 3-22.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19057/јser.2016.1

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Article Metrics Graph

No metrics found.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.