Практики на домување кај лицата со интелектуална попреченост: Служби за домување со поддршка во заедницата

Вера Димитриевска


Practices of housing among people with intellectual disabilities: community-based supported housing services

Over the course of the late XX th century the so-called “social model” (which views disability as the result of social barriers that prevent people with disabilities from participating into the society) arose. This model opposed the previously dominant “medical model” (in which disability is considered as an individual pathology) that had until then underpinned much of service provision for people with disabilities all around the world. Latterly the development of holistic models brought about a global understanding of disability, taking into consideration all dimensions.

The development of international legislation on the rights of people with disabili- ties during the 1970s also accounts for this shift in paradigm from the medical to the social model of disability. Among those, the adoption by the UN General Assembly of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities in 1993, presented disability rights as an equal opportunity issue rather than a special needs issue. For South East European countries at various stages of an EU association or accession process, a key legal instrument is the Council of Europe Recommendation No. R (92) 6 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on a Coherent Policy for People with Disabilities.

In terms of the financial perspective of these services, the results are shown in many reports for institutional care and community-based services. In all of them is noted there is no evidence, that model of community-based services is rather expensive than care in the institutions. Other studies, note the opposite meaning. Experience shows that simply closing institutions is not, in itself, enough to en- sure the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve real inclusion, an efficient network of quality community-based services must be established, and service standards and monitoring systems must be developed. Quality community-based services work according to the following principles:


-   Every person is an individual and should receive support in accordance with his/her individual needs.


-   Every person with disabilities has the right to live in the community.


-   People with disabilities should be included in regular housing and employment environments and the social and cultural activities in the local community.


-   The size of community-based housing programs should be family scale.

The development of social relationships between people with disabilities and other members of the community should be promoted.


-   People with intellectual disabilities should have real opportunities to partici- pate in society and to develop skills necessary for living as independently as possible.


-   Including people with disabilities and their families in the creation, monitoring and evaluation of the community-based support services is essential.

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